1: New voice of Chinese fine art education

Arrival of western culture and change of Chinese art education

自明代以来,西方和东方的绘画就有了交汇,中国绘画受到了西方的影响。西方传教士进行传教活动的同时,也传播了西方绘画技法。在上层社会,如徐光启一类的官员与利玛窦等传教士交往密切,他们组织人力翻译了大量西方书籍,《视学》便是系统介绍西方透视与绘画技法的代表书籍。在民间,西方传教士以澳门等南部沿海地区为据点进行传教活动,西方的宗教画逐渐在中国传播。

到清代,资本主义的萌芽和工厂手工业的发展,专门的外销画作坊在广州等地出。同时,西方绘画的专业人才也到中国游历,同时,吴历等中国画家也受到了西方绘画的深刻影响。

洋务运动与实业教育

中国近代的美术教育囊括在近代实业救国的范畴里,比较注重实用技能,具有很强的救亡色彩。

Introduction: A Historical Recall of Eastern and Western Fine Art Education

中国的美术教育事业是基本上是从近代以来才起步的。

在古代,先秦时期人们已开始注重艺术修养,不少技艺已经在民间流传,《考工记》记载的手工艺品品类已达三十余种。中古中国的美术教育方式主要是以师徒传授为主。在上层社会,以宋徽宗兴办的宣和画院为代表的艺术收藏、创作机构起到了重要的美术教育作用,古代美术教育的目的主要是宣传儒家思想、注重教化人伦。但是到后期文人画兴起,“技”与“艺”逐渐分野,绘画开始强调文人的地位、修养与品格而抛却了“技”的传承,文人绘画技法往往达不到职业画家的水平但能留名青史;而水平精湛的职业画工创作了大量精美的作品但地位却很低,生活穷困。同时师徒传授的方式也使得许多技法也很少公之于众,让世人学习,这种轻“技”的现象也让中国传统绘画走进了死胡同。

西方美育思想从古希腊时期就已经出现,哲学家大多是美学家,作为美学思想一部分的美术教育成为改变人思想的一种手段。中世纪的美术与宗教紧紧捆绑,绘画以圣经故事与人物为主要题材,起到传教作用。画工创作的神像没有人的特征与情感,艺术性很低,而到文艺复兴时期,随着技术的进步与大航海时代的来临,系统、专业的美术创作机构逐步成型,同时从神学教育发展出来的大学也给美术教育与美术学院的出现提供了土壤。以文艺复兴三杰为代表的具有专业素养的创作者也标志着画家地位提高。启蒙运动后,西方的美术教育有了更好的发展。… Read all/全文

EGYPT UNDER THE PHARAOHS

PREDYNASTIC AND EARLY DYNASTIC PERIODS

Painting and Sculpture

PALETTE OF KING NARMER

Narmer’s palette’s narration is the normal form in Egypt, the artist use registers to make the palette more orderly, the figures in the palette combining profile view and frontal view. The pharaoh is the biggest in the center.

Architecture

MASTABAS

Mastaba is the standard tomb type in early Egypt. It’s a rectangular brick or stone structure with sloping sides.

IMHOTEP

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MESOPOTAMIA AND PERSIA

Sumer

The Sumerians developed city-states and formed a white temple for rituals. Sumerians also produced great literature.

INANNA

It is a female head make up with fragments of white marble.

WARKA VASE

It was the first work of pictorial narration.

ESHNUNNA STATUETTES

The oversized eyes of these statuettes depict that the worships for deities and the wakefulness to the connection between deities and them.

STELE OF THE VULTURES

The steel shows the battle of Sumerian.

Sumerian… Read all/全文

Neolithic Art

Anatolia and Mesopotamia

The agriculture developed, many towns developed, so the

JERICHO

Around 7000 BCE, they developed stone buildings to defend nomad, it’s a great achievement, and they used the skulls for rituals, also using plaster to restore the skull, and inlaid seashells as eyes.

Ain Ghazal

They remarked the beginning of monumental sculptures in Mesopotamia.

ÇATAL HÖYÜK

It developed the depiction of the human body, the shape of the torso, not only the profile.… Read all/全文

Paleolithic Art

Africa

What shall be my subject? -animals, but men are rare. They’re almost profiled because the only profile can show the essence.

Western Europe

Paleolithic human-headed shows that the ivory figure is very important for the artist.

Nude woman shows fertility images. The intents of makers maybe the female form.

Ancient artists always painted statuette.

The sculptors usually change the subject to keep the profile view and details.

Art in the Old Stone Age

The question… Read all/全文

Basic concepts 2

Who made it? From the personal style, art historian can attribute who made these art works.

Who paid for it? Patrons always have a big influence when artists are commissioned. They can change subjects and style in an artwork, under these circumstances, personal style is not important. So it is necessary to know who paid for it?

Basic words for art historian:

Form and composition (not only two dimensions but also 3D)

Material and Technique

Line (like Durer’s The Four Horsemen,… Read all/全文